Human Proportions


  1. The height of the face is about 1 1/2 times the width.
  2. The side of the head fits roughly into a square.
  3. The neck cuts straight back, then angles back & down, then straight down
  4. The head sits forward on the shoulders.
  5. shape is oval from three views: the front, side and top.
  6. Upper portion wider than lower
  7. The distance from the chin to the top of head is the same as from the back of the head to the front. The mid-point of the face, when measured from chin to top of head, is at the base of the eyes or eye sockets
  8. Widest part= distance between the two parietal eminences.
  9. The head sideways is one head high and one head wide.


  1. The forehead-to-nose-to chin angle is approximately 120 degrees.
  2. The left cheek-to-nose-to-right cheek angle is approximately 90 degrees.
  3. The face is divided into three equal parts: the top of the head to the brow, the brow to the bottom of the nose, and the bottom of the nose to the bottom of the chin.
  4. Both sides of the face are NOT symmetrical.
  5. The forehead is the only place on the face that is allowed to be flat.
  6. Narrow the temple area.
  7. The face is “five eyes’ wide.
  8. The eye area is the widest part of the face.
  9. Cut the cheek areas straight back.
  10. Define the cheek muscles.
  11. From the nose to the cheek to the side of the head should have a smooth rounded transition.
  12. If looking straight ahead, ends of face will stop at 1/2 of collarbone.
  13. facial proportions are universal regardless of race, sex and age, and are based on the phi ratio of 1.618. For example, if the width of the face from cheek to cheek is 10 inches, then the length of the face from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin should be 16.18 inches to be in ideal proportion.
  14. The average main face triangle touches the two pupils, the widest part of the nose and the point between the front teeth. To me this is an important character trait. The triangle goes from the center of the pupil, touches the outside of the nose nostril and stops at the center line, every bodies triangle is a little different.


  1. The eyes are in the middle of the head.
  2. The eyes are one eye width apart.
  3. Round the eyes and face back around the head.
  4. Recess the bottom of the eyes farther back than the top.
  5. Under normal circumstances, the eyes should be small slits.
  6. The pupil of the eye makes up 80% of the eyeball.
  7. The space between the eyes is about the same width as one eye. If the width of eye is used as a unit of measurement, the head is five eyes wide. The eyes are halfway between the top of the head and the chin
  8. The space between the pupils is two and a half inches.
  9. The width of one eye is always equal to the space between the eyes

Eyebrows extend beyond the eyes on both sides.

  1. The top of the ear is located at the top of the eye or eyebrow.
  2. The ear is as long as the nose.
  3. The center of the ear lies slightly behind the center of the head when viewed from the side.
  4. The front of the ear is an extension of the back of the jaw.  This means the ear starts at the very end of the jaw line.
  5. The front of the ear and the jaw are exactly in the center of the head.
  6. The ear should slant a little from the front to the back.
  7. The top of the ears line up with the brow of the nose and the eyebrows, and the bottom of the ears with the tip of the nose.
  8. The top of the ears line up above the eyes, on the eyebrows
  9. The ear hole is in line with bottom of the nose, and just above the backbone- skull pivot point.


  1. The “half in – half out” rule. Half of the nose should extend out from the face. The other half should extend into the face.
  2. The outside edges of the nostrils line up with the inside corners of the eyes.
  3. Taper the nostrils back NOT out.
  4. The nose widens slightly then tapers back in about half way between the bridge and the tip.
  5. The nose has a ball on the end of it.
  6. Do not carve away the muscle structure that connects the nose to the cheeks.
  7. DO NOT hollow the inside of the nostrils until the face is completely finished.
  8. The bottom of the nose is the midpoint between the eyes and the chin.
  9. Face is three noses long
  10. Length nose = length ear
  11. Width nose = width eye


  1. The mouth line is 1/3 of the distance from the base of the nose to the base of the chin.
  2. Dentures are not flat! Round the mouth area.
  3. The corners of the mouth line up with the middle of the eyes if you’re not smiling .
  4. The corners of the mouth should extend behind the nose.
  5. The bottom lip should set back under the top lip.
  6. The corners of the bottom lip should tuck under the top lip.
  7. Add dimple lines at the corners of the top lip.
  8. The mouth has little “pockets” at each corner.
  9. The line where the two lips meet is slightly above the halfway point between the end of the nose and the chin.
  10. Mouth is two eyes wide


  1. Keep the ball of the chin small.
  2. The chin sets back behind the lips.
  3. The chin has two muscles on the end of it. 
  4. The mound of the chin starts at the inner corners of the eyes


  1. Hair has several levels. Carve them!
  2. Hair must have a starting point and an ending point. It does not start and/or end in the middle unless it comes out from or goes in under something.


  1. The veins in the neck disappear behind the ears.
  2. The jaw turns into the ear.

the body

  1. The average adult is seven heads tall.
  2.  The top of the hips are four heads high
  3. The pelvic region is about one head high.
  4. Elbow to fingertip is about two head lengths.
  5.  Wrist to fingertip is one head length.
  6. HEAD- Width of torso (sans shoulders)
  7. HAIRLINE- One eye-length above eyes
  8. FEET- Length of half of shin (or roughly the size of the forearm).
  9. HANDS- Finger base (across knuckles) half as wide as face
  10. LEGS- Torso length (hip to knee)
  11. TORSO- (hip to collarbone) 2 1/2 head lengths
  12. ARMS- Elbow ends just above waist (not hips)
  13. FOREARM- if hand is on shoulder, wrist is at mid-shoulder.
  14. The width from shoulder to shoulder is 3 heads width.
  15. The distance from the hip to the toes is 4 heads.
  16. The distance from the top of the head to the bottom of the chest is 2 heads.
  17. The distance from the wrist to the end of the outstretched fingers of the hand is 1 head.
  18. The length from top to bottom of the buttocks is 1 head.
  19. The distance from the elbow to the end of outstretched fingers is 2 heads.
  20. The neck is 1/4 of a head high.
  21. The chin to shoulder line is 1/4 of one heads length.
  22. The chin to nipples line equals one head length.
  23. The nipples to the belly button equals one head length.
  24. From the belly button to the space between the legs is one and 1/4 head.
  25. The width of the waste at the belly button is one head length wide (not head width wide).
  26. From the hip [trunk] top triangle line to the space between the legs, is one head high and two head widths wide. Not more.
  27. The center of the body is the bend line, it is 1/4 head above the space between the legs and two head widths wide. Not more.
  28. The torso triangle is from the ends of the shoulder line to the center and the top line of the bend line triangle. That is the quarter head high triangle within the trunk triangle.
  29. The rib cage can be represented by an oval two heads high, starting 1/4 head length above the shoulder line.
  30. The upper arm, from the shoulder triangles outside edge, is one and 1/2 heads long.
  31. The lower arm is one and 1/4 heads long 
  32. The hand is 3/4 of a head long, equal to the average face. 
  33. The chest side view is one head width wide at the nipples. 
  34. The chest side view is one head width wide at the nipples.
  35. The upper arm is one and 1/2 head lengths, connecting through the shoulder ball, a quarter head circle reaching the end of the shoulder line. 
  36. Just below the leg space, the legs and the body are the widest. 
  37. From the outside point of the bend line triangle down to the center of the knee cap is two head lengths.
  38. The knee cap is a 1/4 head length circle.
  39. The bend line is the center of the body.
  40. The calf muscle is higher on the outside.
  41. From the center of the knee cap to the ground is two head lengths.
  42. The ankle is 1/4 head high off the ground.
  43. The foot is one head length long.
  44. The ankle bone is higher on the inside.