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 Woodcarvings by Maura

Human Proportions

face and body

Head: shape is oval from three views: the front, side and top.

Upper portion wider than lower

The distance from the chin to the top of head is the same as from the back of the head to the front. The mid-point of the face, when measured from chin to top of head, is at the base of the eyes or eye sockets

Widest part = distance between the two parietal eminences.

The head sideways is one head high and one head wide.

face- If looking straight ahead, ends of face will stop at 1/2 of collarbone.

facial proportions are universal regardless of race, sex and age, and are based on the phi ratio of 1.618. For example, if the width of the face from cheek to cheek is 10 inches, then the length of the face from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin should be 16.18 inches to be in ideal proportion.

The average main face triangle touches the two pupils, the widest part of the nose and the point between the front teeth. To me this is an important character trait. The triangle goes from the center of the pupil, touches the outside of the nose nostril and stops at the center line, every bodies triangle is a little different.

. Eyes: The space between the eyes is about the same width as one eye. If the width of eye is used as a unit of measurement, the head is five eyes wide. The eyes are halfway between the top of the head and the chin

The space between the pupils is two and a half inches.

The width of one eye is always equal to the space between the eyes

Eyebrows extend beyond the eyes on both sides.

Ears: The top of the ears line up with the brow of the nose and the eyebrows, and the bottom of the ears with the tip of the nose.

The top of the ears line up above the eyes, on the eyebrows

The ear hole is in line with bottom of the nose, and just above the backbone- skull pivot point.

Nose: The bottom of the nose is the midpoint between the eyes and the chin.

Face is three noses long

Length nose = length ear

Width nose = width eye

Mouth: The corners of the mouth align with the centre of the eyes (if you're not smiling). The line where the two lips meet is slightly above the halfway point between the end of the nose and the chin.

.Mouth is two eyes wide

Chin: The mound of the chin starts at the inner corners of the eyes

the body

The average adult is seven heads tall.
- The top of the hips are four heads high.
- The pelvic region is about one head high.
- Elbow to fingertip is about two head lengths.
- Wrist to fingertip is one head length.

HEAD- Width of torso (sans shoulders)

HAIRLINE- One eye-length above eyes

FEET- Length of half of shin (or roughly the size of the forearm).

HANDS- Finger base (across knuckles) half as wide as face

LEGS- Torso length (hip to knee)

TORSO- (hip to collarbone) 2 1/2 head lengths

ARMS- Elbow ends just above waist (not hips)

FOREARM- if hand is on shoulder, wrist is at mid-shoulder.

The width from shoulder to shoulder is 3 heads width.

The distance from the hip to the toes is 4 heads.

The distance from the top of the head to the bottom of the chest is 2 heads.

The distance from the wrist to the end of the outstretched fingers of the hand is 1 head.

The length from top to bottom of the buttocks is 1 head.

The distance from the elbow to the end of outstretched fingers is 2 heads.

The neck is 1/4 of a head high.

The chin to shoulder line is 1/4 of one heads length.

The chin to nipples line equals one head length.

The nipples to the belly button equals one head length.

From the belly button to the space between the legs is one and 1/4 head.

The width of the waste at the belly button is one head length wide (not head width wide).

From the hip [trunk] top triangle line to the space between the legs, is one head high and two head widths wide. Not more.

The center of the body is the bend line, it is 1/4 head above the space between the legs and two head widths wide. Not more.

The torso triangle is from the ends of the shoulder line to the center and the top line of the bend line triangle. That is the quarter head high triangle within the trunk triangle.

The rib cage can be represented by an oval two heads high, starting 1/4 head length above the shoulder line.

The upper arm, from the shoulder triangles outside edge, is one and 1/2 heads long.

The lower arm is one and 1/4 heads long.

The hand is 3/4 of a head long, equal to the average face.

The chest side view is one head width wide at the nipples.

The upper arm is one and 1/2 head lengths, connecting through the shoulder ball, a quarter head circle reaching the end of the shoulder line.

Just below the leg space, the legs and the body are the widest.

From the outside point of the bend line triangle down to the center of the knee cap is two head lengths.

The bend line is the center of the body.

The knee cap is a 1/4 head length circle.

The calf muscle is higher on the outside.

From the center of the knee cap to the ground is two head lengths.

The ankle is 1/4 head high off the ground.

The foot is one head length long.

The ankle bone is higher on the inside.

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Maura Macaluso

Staten Island, NY



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carving in nyc

NYC New York City Artist 2011

Copyright Notice
All rights to this material are reserved. No part may be reproduced, photocopied or reprinted in any form, electronic or otherwise, without the express written consent for authorization.
Original patterns contained herein, may be purchased by individuals and used to complete their own personal carvings for sale or show, as long as such sales or shows are not through licensed commercial businesses.
To that end, the author encourages the use of purchased material for personal and educational use. Mass production and other commercial use of the material herein, is strictly prohibited by law.